Subway Systems are the elite transportation of modern cities like; Montreal, Paris, Tokyo, Singapore, London, Guangzhou and New york. It operates below the surface of land via electricity. It provides fast, comfortable and cozy service as compare to personal transport. The best thing about subway system is; it is economical, safe and environment friendly; it can cut air pollution greatly. If there were no substation in New York, in the year 2001, the aftermath of the world trade incident could have been worse; if thousands of people were not escaped from there within few minutes by the help of substation.
Main Components of Subway System:
The three chief components of a subway system are tunnels, stations and depots. Before the construction starts, Planning plays a huge role of creating everything on the maps and computers; keeping in view the land area, material, need and budget. In a subway system; it is mainly required for determining the track alignment of tunnels and placement of the stations and depots, which means that quarter of the work is done before the construction started but it’s a long and tedious process. All components must fixed in such a way that proper facilities are available such as electricity and structural elements. Also the stations, tunnels and depots are placed at a distance from residential areas as it produces a lot of noises.
The Construction of a tunnel is done mostly by cut and fill method, in most part of the world this technique is used and being followed due to being economical and flexible also it is use in pedestrian underpasses. By this technique the area which is not required is cut and covering is done of the vacant places by the material which is cut. Tunnel Boring Machine is also use which drills from soil to hardest rock; which is very big and takes time even to get assembled, blasting from dynamite is taken in to account for the construction of tunnel. Some research is going on; for creating a safe and easy tunnel quickly and smoothly. Engineers are working with lasers cutting devices and some high tech computers which will analyze the ground situation by the help of sound wave. For waterproofing; since lots of steel and iron is used; use precast concrete along with some waterproofing pigments. After creating the tunnel with the consideration that it will handle its own weight and the movable heavy trains; there is use of electronic devices for this vast system for the safety and easiness. Use of Logic Circuits to know the exact places of trains, use of screens to tell the passengers about the time of arrival and departure just like an airport.
Signals are very important when train arrives and departs; also to avoid intersection which results in great historical accidents, using high-tech devices the chances of accidents and tragedies are getting minimized.
Problems of the elite transportation system:
As the subway in peak times gets opaque with people so the chances of criminal activity creates, such as pick pocketing and mobile snatching. This problem gets minimized by placing high-tech cameras and patrol of police guards in peak hours. Secondly, the privacy is nowhere; so one could save money or save its privacy. Public transport works on schedule and they follow the preset routes; they will not go for a shortcut to get you towards your destination; so one has to rush to get to his destination.
Keeping a thought in mind; these problems are not big as compare to economic crises, global warming and energy crises; so one has to sacrifice his privacy and his habits and take small but effective part in solving bigger problems.