China is booming out in construction and will do for the next few years. As in the start of this month they have completed nations biggest project ‘The Three Gorges Dam’ which is known to be the most expensive dam in the history. One more notable project Shanghai Tower is under construction which will be completed in next two years having an estimated budget of about US$ 2.2 billion. Also Wuhan Greenland Center is under processwhich will be more taller than the Shanghai Tower. Moreover Chinese construction companies are working in Africa, Chinese workers are moving ahead and going in Africa for building its infrastructure as China being the most traded country in Africa for the last three years so they are looking to invest about US$ 20 billion.
Despite of US$314 billion loss in the construction of 130 airports but they still believe to built more airports. Li Jiaxiang, head of Civil Aviation Administration of China saying the role of small airports is indispensable to local economic development. Feeder airports mainly serve cargo planes and smaller flights. This will integrate 80 percent population of China to use the facility of flying transport from 2015.
1680 km gas pipeline will start its journey from Turkmenistan and its final destination will be India-Pakistan border. TAPI gas pipeline is an agreement signed between four countries (Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India) is estimated to be US 7.6 billion dollar. According to UK auditing firm Gaffney, Cline & Associates, Turkmenistan is the fourth or fifth largest reserve of natural gas.
This pipeline will help to overcome acute shortage of energy in India, Pakistan as well as in Afghanistan. Turkmenistan will also likely to capture market and diversify its existing market from China and Russia. This is actually a win-win solution for all four countries and other countries has also shown praise for this project.
Canada National Defense minister also spokes about the pipeline that if Taliban plays its role in destruction of pipeline than we are ready to play our role. Also NATO secretary journal said that the saving pipeline is first priority. This project will help other countries to build revenue as they will take part in the construction of this pipeline, sponsored by Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Route Of TAPI Pipeline :
The pipeline will run from the Turkmenistan gas fields to Afghanistan. It will start from the Dauletabad gas fields and run into Afghanistan alongside the highway running from Heart to Kandahar and then via Quetta and Multan in Pakistan. The final destination of the pipeline will be Fazilka near the India-Pakistan border.
Alternative of TAPI, IPI :
Pakistan and India for fulfilling there energy crises, negotiating with Iran for Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline. But India with its tensed relation with Pakistan are not showing any serious concerns with this project. Pakistan on the other hand is willing to signed with Iran but due to political and International tension, this project is not executing and not showing any progress like the way TAPI did. China has also shown its interest and is likely to take part in this project if it progresses.
For designing and constructing a stable engineering structure we should know the character of rock and soil in which it will be built. In-Situ investigation is the gathering of information about the site. The geological condition of the site which forms the rocks and soils and the nature of material which are present on the site which is used for the construction are taken in to account. Constructing a road, tunnel, dams, bridges or any other engineering structures from selected construction material, strength of the structures and requirements of the load and its displacement may be predicted.
In ground investigation two things should be consider, Firstly the character of rock or soil mass and secondly geological environment. The quality of rock and soil is obtained by the observation and some physical test; like how hard or soft rock material is present, by crushing with machines and also studying its composition. Presence of fluid can be obtained by saturation test and if present so its pressure can be calculating by measuring from instruments like hydrometer. It is useful before commencing further exploration.
There is no fixed approach to ground investigation but code of practice or methods exists. Program of In-situ investigation should be flexible as it enables the investigation to be amended when unexpected features of importance come in to explanation. The main components of In-Situ Investigation is Desk Study, Field Reconnaissance, Field Investigation, Sampling and reporting. However these components may be over-lapped depending upon the circumstances.There is also a lot of use of geological advice for getting the best use of geological condition. In ground investigation the geologist uses theory of probability to aid them besides the knowledge of materials and its genesis.
The Cost of Site investigation is about .5% to 1% of the cost of project but it is not necessary. The purpose should be completed and that is to know the stability of the site for the design and construction. Moreover;
Is there any fluid present which will affect the construction of a structure?
Obtain information about the quality and quantity of a material.
Ground Investigation should not be ignored for saving money as it could be dangerous in future.
Remember one thing that the Money can be saved in design and construction once engineers know the exact conditions of ground.
95-story towers, 11,000 glass panels, 44 escalators; THE SHARD (marked at London south bank) is now the tallest building of Europe after surpassing Commerz Bank Tower which was about 259m. Italian Architect, Renzo Piano designed it. It became the tallest building of Europe in 2011 but it is officially unveiled in London this year. The opening of this building was officially held a few days ago with a fabulous laser light of green, purple and gold. About 310 meter tall seems to be average in front of tallest building in the world, ‘Burj-ul -Arab’. It is about half kilometer shorter than the tallest building of the world. It is 59th tallest building in the world.
However, at the end of this year it will increase about 20-30 meters by which it will surpassed Mercury City Tower in Russia. In SHARD you will find Offices, Apartments with 360 degrees views, Hotels, Restaurants and Spa and lots more. The ground-floor Shard Plaza will be a public area with seating and plants. Also each Apartment cost will be about 78 million dollars.
Yesterday was the first day when people booked their tickets for ‘The View from The Shard’. Viewing from Shard makes the other land mark looks small and the London bridge station looks like a toy. But it cost about 24 pound for adult and 18 pound for children to view from the edifice, more expensive of viewing Taj Mahal, about 900-1000 Indian rupees need for visiting it. But for non-Indians it is expensive about 50-60 dollar. ‘I don’t think many local people will be going up to the viewing platform at that price’, says Russell Gray of the Bermondsey Village Action Group. Despite of slow-moving economy of Europe, they are looking forward to attract foreigners.
According to developer Irvine Sellar, he says that this building will prove to be success, despite its sluggish economy.
What are your views about this building?
Do you think it is a tourist attraction for London?