What is Cement

Petoskey - Portland Cement Plant, Penn-Dixie C...
Petoskey – Portland Cement Plant, Penn-Dixie Cement Plant, Now Bay Harbor

Cement is regarded to be the most important material in civil engineering industry. Its function is same as that of glue, It binds the sand and coarse aggregate together and to form a compact mass. It is a grayish powder (white cement is due to addition of Gypsum) when comes to contact with water gets harden. Manufacturing Of Portland cement: The most common cement used today is Portland cement which is the mixture of argillaceous i.e. clay like and calcaneous i.e. (Containing CaCO3 and other insoluble salts). Raw Materials: Chalk Lime stone Clay and other rich Aluminum and Iron Chief constituents of Portland cement

Tri Calcium Silicate/C3S Alite 3Ca.SiO2 60-70%
Di Calcium Silicate/C2S Belite 2CaO.SiO2 10-20%
Tri Calcium aluminate/C3A Aluminate 3CaO.Al2O3 5-10%
Tetra Calcium Alumino Ferrate/C4AF Ferrite 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 3-8%

Two Chief aspects in manufacturing of Portland cement: * To make a finely divided mixture of raw materials. * To heat the mixture to produce chemical composition.

To make a finely divided mixture of raw materials: First the raw materials are crushed and grinded in a chamber having steel balls (same as crushing copper ore in steel ball mill to produce finely crushed ore) to get homogenized and blended such that 80% of material passed through sieve No.200. In between two aspects there are two optional processes one is wet process and the other is dry process.

Wet Process: The material is mixed with 30-40% water by weight to make it slurry and then to second aspect.

Dry Process: Blended material is directly taken to the kiln in a dry state. Dry process is more economical then wet process and saves a lot of fuel but the process is dustier as compared to wet process.

To heat the mixture  and to produce chemical composition: When the material either from dry or wet process comes in to kiln(size of horizontal kiln is about 80-150 m and 3-5 m in diameter) due to heating lime stone is broken down in to lime and calcium and carbon dioxide. Also Alumina and silica from the clay undergoes a chemical reaction in the temperature of about (2750oF when material is come from wet process) in to “Calcium aluminate”. Calcium Silicates are also formed in the kiln when material move down to kiln and the temperature is increased. Cement clinkers which are of greenish or black in color are also formed and having the diameter of about 18 mm. Cement clinkers are cooled down by decreasing temperature drastically to 150oF and stored at clinker silos. It is mixed with the gypsum to retard the setting time of cement. It is grounded in to fine powder and kept in to baggage in dry place.

Cement Function: When Cement mixes with water and aggregates a stiff and sticky paste or gel forms  in which silica dioxide makes a huge network in which aggregates are trapped. it becomes harden and harden as the time elapses. This phenomenon by virtue of which the plastic cement changes into soil mass is known as setting of cement. For testing the setting time of cement we use Vicat’s Apparatus by placing a cube of cement and water, under Vicat’s apparatus and the needle is immersed in it, to get initial and final setting time of cement.

Lastly, it very important to consider about environmental pollution so cement plant designer should keep this thing in mind to control the emission of toxic substances. The priority in the cement industry is to minimize the increase in discharge particulate levels by reducing the mass load emitted from the tons, from renegade emissions, and from other sources. This could be done as in same way as in Ammonia Solvay process, by using the by-product that is using dust in kiln gases which will also improve the efficiency of it and reduce the atmospheric emission, good plant designers do Consider about it. 🙂 PhotCredit


Overview of Engineering Drawing

Drawings on a table
Manual Engineering Drawing(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

When I decided to study engineering what I study the most was not calculus, mechanics or linear algebra but engineering drawing and it was because I didn’t pay attention in my primary classes. Scale was never my good friend I never made a straight line but still determined to do well in drawing.

After studying engineering drawing in 2 out of 3 semesters, I was pretty satisfied from my performance and did much better from what I thought. Engineering Drawing is one of the most significant subject of engineering and one of the most attracting subjects for non engineering colleagues. It’s a language of engineers.  The concept of Engineering Drawing is best conveyed from paper and pencil and not the Auto Computer Aided Design (Auto CAD). Today, many engineers designers use Auto cad and somewhat is mandatory but they learn the concept of drawing through practicing on boards.

Tools of Manual Engineering Drawing:

In engineering Drawing we need a pencil (H pencils are most used in drawing), eraser, T-Square(use for drawing horizontal lines and alignment), Set Squares(use for vertical lines), protector, French curves, Engineering Drawing Board, Drawing Sheets(Half Imperial and Full Imperial) ,Interpret Scales, simple calculator and pins.

Before start drawing a single line you should know two things one is the unit(s) (ft, inches, cm or mm) you will be working in it and secondly Scale Factor

 Scale Factors:

Most important terminology in engineering drawing is scale factor it very important for a designer to know, how to design the land area or a machine part or any real size object on the paper by using proper scale factors?

Let’s suppose for planning a 400 sq. yards (3600 sq. ft) on A-4 size paper you can use 1/8 scale factor, In full imperial sheet can use as ¼ (4 feet to an inch) or 3/8 scale factor.

Also some small object like nut and bolt of small sizes we adopt big scale to magnify it i.e. (1/2” to 1’).

The sheet or paper must be properly used and the idea of drawing must be easily conveyed.

Starting a drawing:

* The Paper or sheet must placed on the board such that no rolling or air get between the paper and the board.

* The paper must be aligned with the board, Check from the bottom as well as on the top by using a ‘T Square’ and fixing it to one end.

After alignment placed the paper tape or pins on 4 sides of paper.

*Start drawing.


* Giving a space at most right for scheduling and detailing of objects will give a good impression.

* Scale factors must be prominent.

* Make sure that no food items or even sweat come closer to it, will make your drawing dirty and spoil your presentation. 😀

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Invincible Robot in Rock Paper and Scissors

Remember this game which you played last time and win it against your friend but wait this time a bigger challenge is in front of you

Beats you in less than a second

What? Are you afraid of it? if yes then you should be because this robot don’t give you a single chance of winning. Japan’s Ishikawa laboratory has created the invincible robot which beat human being in rock paper and scissor 10 on 10. Another cool robot in the bazaar by japanese. This Robot is 100% confident of beating you in “Rock Paper and Scissor”. According to Engineers that this robot has the ability to recieve the image of joint wrist hand of human being in I milli second through camera and perform the rest part of the game by robotic hand . The researchers claim that “This technology is one example that shows a possibility of cooperation control within a few milliseconds,” write the researchers. “And this technology can be applied to motion support of human beings and cooperation work between human beings and robots etc. without time delay.” One Idea to beat it/There is always a way:

“Everything is fair in love and war”

Well it is possible by a little cheating with this confident, over smart robot. It is time now some engineering just reverse the camera lens to one of the friend of yours while the robotic arms face towards you and say your partner to show the paper and you show the punch. Congrats you win against the unassailable, invincible and unbeatable robot! but by cheating… Or maybe playing against a human being is a better option. What do you think so?

Top 15 Tips for the preparation of Aptitude Test

We really take too much tension regarding Aptitude Test for Professional University and that tension creates a block in our learning process. Student’s when applying for Engineering or Medical universities look forward for an Aptitude Test Preparation Centre’s which is not feasible for people who can’t afford it. Here I bring some tips regarding preparation of Aptitude Test.

15 Tips for the preparation of Aptitude Test

1. Keep a Note Book:

Fetch a note book so that you can create your own performance Evaluation.

Make a list of Subjects you want to prepare for the Aptitude Test, Mark 5 stars on those whom your preparation is good, question mark on the subject in which you need to work really hard. Don’t carry the book all day in your hand, just before going to Bed give some time to it.

 2. Two or Three Subjects at a time:

Don’t pick one subject for a day,take 2 in start and later on 3. Pick one subject which you really like and pick the most interesting topic, I said interesting not that which you learned hard in your past classes. Pick the least favorite subject and pick the most boring but important article.

3. Timing is not the Key:

Many bright students don’t study for 4-5 hours or 12 hours but they study until they absorb the topic this may take 1 or 2 hour or may be 5 hour. Try to get the concept of it and be prepared that question regarding it can be in any shape.

4. Manage your Time:

Although you should not target studying hours but you need to manage it don’t study when you feel tired, it is of no use. It’s good to study in the morning but it’s on you. Try to get interval, this will increase your learning strength also it will decrease your hassle.

5. Group Study is a nice option:

It is very good to do group study and sharing tips with each other, it definitely work to score high in test. Try not to rely on it and don’t waste of your time asking each other, home much you have did?

6. Don’t rely on one book:

Keep one thing in mind the topic in test could be same but the questions are unusual, don’t rely on one book try to take help from internet as a lot of material is present.  Take one or two good test preparation books.

7. Take part in quizzes:

Try to take full use of Online Free Test it really assists you and more also it makes you confident as there are too many quizzes and scoring will definitely boost you. Also video lectures on different topics can help you a lot.

8. Reading is better option than writing:

It is not possible to write and jot down everything better to read it and try to memorize the important terminologies. If possible write down the key points of the topic. Subjects like English you need to give  a bit on writing so don’t run from it.

9. Link one topic with the other and then to the other:

This tech really works in subjects like Chemistry or Physics. For Instance,

Talking about homologous series in chemistry

Definition of Homologous Series from Wikipedia

“In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and showing a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass.”

Now here we define homologous series than link it to functional group (define it) examples of functional groups like X(halogens),-OH(hydroxyl),-COOH(carboxylic),-CHO(aldehyde),R-H(alkane),R-OR(ether) etc  than link to Nomenclature than to their Method of Preparation and to chemical properties and so on and on…

10. Back to Note Book:

It is very important to note down the topics which are learned.

11. Avoid Gaps:

Consistency produces positive results so it is very important not to have long gaps in studies, if you don’t feel good, just try pinching it. Read whatever you like regarding your subjects.

 12. Plan it and stay with it:

This tip really do pay off because you are the only one who knows,’ How can I achieve this? How Can I produce the best result?’ so you planned the best for it’.

13. Take Advice:

Take advice with those who passed from this stage, if there is no one around you than ‘Prepare to be that’.

14. Past Papers:

They are helpful and create an idea in your mind regarding a paper but don’t take it for granted, may be this time it might be a different scenario.

15. Sleep and eat well:

It is very important for a student to take a healthy diet and proper sleep as it gives you boost mentally.

Some more tips in this video with music 😀

Any other advice you want to add?


West Indies has produced great cricketers in the past like Sir Viv Richards, Malcolm Marshall, Brian Lara, Curtly Ambrose, Michael Holding, Courtney Walsh and Sir Garfield Sobers. From Jamaica, 6 ft 3 inches tall and left hand batsman ‘Christopher Henry Gayle’ who is currently the King of T20 cricket format.

Although he is not as patient and not as technical like Brian Lara but he hits the ball so hard and hysterically that even umpires have to remain extra charged when he is batting. This started growing from the time when West Indies cricket board has pulled him out of national team(currently he is in the national side after 14 months) and he started played T20 all around the world like England, South Africa, Australia, Bangladesh and India. He is bought for huge money despite of his tough schedule. He Bats as an opener and making hundreds are like opening a tap of water for him. He in this year IPL season has been a leading run scorer although his team not win the IPL this year, yet he is a great benefit for a team in shorter version of cricket.

Favorites for the World Cup:

His presence along with other good and talented T20 players like Dwayne Bravo, Sunil Narine and Pollard along with consistent team member Darren Sammy, leading West Indies to won the biggest event of the year-T20World Cup 2012.

One of the Most Controversial Moment of IPL 5 did by Chris Gayle:

Some time hitting balls for sixes not only break the hearts of the fans of opponents but can injured the fans of yours. Chris Gayle hit the ball for a six and accidently hit to a girl but his kindness and humanity that he went to see her in hospital.

Can He break Sachin’s Or Sehwag’s Record what you think?

The way Chris Gayle makes hundreds in T20 and the way his strike rate floats between 175.00 – 200.00, looks like the time is not so far when he scores 200+ runs in ODI’s. Moreover if he do that he has the ability to repeat that, the way Lara has the habit of scoring 200+ in test cricket.

What is your Opinion regarding the milestone?

Express your thoughts!

Umpiring- A decision to be made

In a Street Cricket when two teams are all set to play out, umpiring is done by one of the team mate who bats (just to check out the no balls and run out and keep extra balls), while an eye has been on him by one of the bowling side player either he is right or wrong regarding no balls and run outs, so for it he field just close to him.

But when it comes to domestic, county or International cricket, umpiring becomes an important part. It should be taken as a serious and professional job. It is not an easy work. it requires sharp eye, active mind and great audible range. One decision can turn the match. Likewise in construction of a normal building, people don’t praise the normal building but if same building gets crumple you know the consequences. Similarly a right decision is not praised. Umpires are taken with soft image but it becomes a brutal image if one of the player is appealing for a right decision and gets overturned.

It is not the players who have Fans in the field but umpires too

One of the Best Umpires in Cricketing World: Aleem Dar

What Should We Do?

* Umpiring should be taken seriously in domestic games and good umpires should promote in the International format.

* Each and every decision should be noticed and an eye should keep on umpires too(you know what I mean).

*Use of technology should promote in domestic matches to get more good umpires in International matches.

* If possible make a small research centre where gadgets or software are made to assist umpires and to improve decisions.

*More over software should be checked with all aspect before using.

*If a batsman sure he is out so he should admit it and leave the field or else if he doubt he might check for 3rd umpire.

*Like in I.P.L (Indian Premier League) there is a king fisher fair play award, Similarly ICC should bring justice play award in every series and should be given importance and compel teams to fight for it.

What Can an Umpire Do?

*Umpires themselves need to challenge them they should do home work before start of every match

For example: If Pakistan and India are playing in Australia so they should know that fast bowlers will be used more so they should keep important things in mind regarding fast bowlers for instance no balls from foot and of height and LBW’s, keep stats regarding batsman who gets more out on LBW’s and bowler who bowls more no balls.

*They might do this but it’s good to tell they should eat a lot of carrots and also keep in touch with nutritionist and ask them about diet, also do exercise and moreover doing meditation will definitely improves there listening and seeing command. 😀

Are there any other ideas by which umpiring can be improved?

Exhibition Match In Delhi

A few days ago in Dehli (India); MS Dhoni, Harabhajjan Singh, Virat Kholi and Murli Vijay get up for an exhibition match and guess what, the match was not of cricket but of football and in this passionate game Rock star Ranbir Kapoor with an RK t-shirt having No.8 was out against them and more surprisingly he was not alone and having a teammate who made Chelsea the winner of last Champions League, yes I am talking about Didier Drogba and also  Ivory Coast. 


The temperature of Dehli was up to 45 and it increases with the presence of drogba along with MS dhoni in Pepsi T20 football exhibition Match.


Drogba regarding world cricket said that he has followed the Last one day Cricket World cup which India won and he thinks that Dhoni is a good leader, He moreover said that he can’t pronounce his name. He also expressed his feeling regarding UEFA Champions League and said that he and his team mates are trying hard since last eight years and last they reach the finals.

Dhoni told that it’s great to play like this and promoting football in India. One thing also likely to share that he was before as a wicket keeper was a goal keeper but since last thirteen years his focus is Cricket. He was ask to do goal keeping while Drogba will go for a penalty kick he sided this challenge by saying that since last thirteen years I have been in to cricket and I am not in form as a Goal KeepeER. 😀